It was founded by Seleucus I Nicator following the dissolution of Alexander the Great’s empire. In the formal "court" titulature of the Hellenistic empires ruled by dynasties we know as Diadochs, the title was not customary for the Monarch, but has actually been proven to be the lowest in a system of official rank titles, known as Aulic titulature, conferred – ex officio or nominatim – to actual courtiers and as an honorary rank (for protocol) to various military and civilian officials. Perdiccas saw holding the empire together his responsibility, but with Alexander the Great dead there was no center influential or strong enough to hold the empire together. After Antipater’s death in 319, Cassander refused to acknowledge the new regent, Polyperchon. Alexander the Great (356–323 BC) died suddenly at the age of 32, leaving no apparent heir or appointed successor. Alexander IV was the son of Alexander the Great (a Macedonian) and Alexander's wife Roxana (a Sogdian). For purposes of this presentation, the Diadochi are grouped by their rank and social standing at the time of Alexander's death. Notably in the Ptolemaic Kingdom, it was reported as the lowest aulic rank, under Philos, during the reign of Ptolemy V Epiphanes. It included parts of the present day Balkans, Anatolia, the Levant, Egypt, Babylonia, and most of the former Achaemenid Empire, except for some lands the Achaemenids formerly held in Central Asia. Alexander used every opportunity to further his father's victories, expecting that he would be a part of them. Alexander the Great left behind a huge empire, stretching from Greece to India; but with his death it was an empire without a ruler. Check our encyclopedia for a gloss on thousands of topics from biographies to the table of elements. Alexander's empire stretched from his homeland of Macedon itself, along with the Greek city-states that his father had subdued, to Bactria and parts of India in the east. The institution of the companion cavalry or "Hetaĩroi" (Ancient Greek: ἑταῖροι) gave the ancient Macedonian army a flexible capability in this regard. The Battle of Ipsus at the end of the Fourth War of the Diadochi finalized the breakup of the unified Empire of Alexander. Feb 2, 2013 - Explore Clarence Liau's board "Alexander the Great and successors" on Pinterest. Antipater was relieved by a force sent by Leonnatus, who was killed in action, but the war did not come to an end until Craterus's arrival with a fleet to defeat the Athenians at the Battle of Crannon on September 5, 322 BCE. a. Roman Republic . [6] When Philip was on campaign Alexander would lament at the report of each victory that his father would leave him nothing of note to do. Without a chosen successor, there was almost immediately a dispute among Alexander's generals as to who his successor should be. With the aid of Antigonus I Monophthalmus, ruler of Phrygia, Cassander seized Macedonia… e. Pergamum. They expected appointments, but without Alexander they would have to make their own. In the formal "court" titulature of the Hellenistic empires ruled by dynasties we know as Diadochs, the title was not customary for the Monarch, but has actually been proven to be the lowest in a system of official rank titles, known as Aulic titulature, conferred – ex officio or nominatim – to actual courtiers and as an honorary rank (for protocol) to various military and civilian officials. In ancient Greek, diadochos[2] is a noun (substantive or adjective) formed from the verb, diadechesthai, "succeed to,"[3] a compound of dia- and dechesthai, "receive. Copyright © 2012, Columbia University Press. In the east, Perdiccas largely left Alexander's arrangements intact – Taxiles and Porus governed over their kingdoms in India; Alexander's father-in-law Oxyartes governed Gandara; Sibyrtius governed Arachosia and Gedrosia; Stasanor governed Aria and Drangiana; Philip governed Bactria and Sogdia; Phrataphernes governed Parthia and Hyrcania; Peucestas governed Persis; Tlepolemus had charge over Carmania; Atropates governed northern Media; Archon got Babylonia; and Arcesilaus governed northern Mesopotamia. The Wars of the Diadochi mark the beginning of the Hellenistic period from the Mediterranean Sea to the Indus River Valley. Learn more about the world with our collection of regional and country maps. In the opening campaign against Byzantium he made Alexander "regent" (kurios) in his absence. Satraps (Old Persian: xšaθrapāwn) were the governors of the provinces in the Hellenistic empires. Cassander took (319–316 BC) Macedon and held it until his death (297); he refounded Salonica (now Thessaloníki). Antigonus was charged with the task of rooting out Perdiccas's former supporter, Eumenes. Macedonia’s victory over the Greek city states at the battle of Chaeronea (338 BCE) made Philip, king of Macedonia, the most powerful figure in Greece. The Macedonian generals carved the empire up after Alexander's death (323 BC); these were the successors (the Diadochi), founders of states and dynasties—notably Antipater, Perdiccas, Ptolemy I, Seleucus I, Antigonus I, and Lysimachus. Perdiccas' marriage to Alexander's sister Cleopatra led Antipater, Craterus, Antigonus, and Ptolemy to join together in rebellion. Polyperchon allied himself to Eumenes in Asia, but was driven from Macedonia by Cassander, and fled to Epirus with the infant king Alexander IV and his mother Roxana. Infoplease is part of the FEN Learning family of educational and reference sites for parents, teachers and students. Grote may have been right, but he ignores entirely Droysen's main thesis, that the concepts of "successors" and "sons of successors" were innovated and perpetuated by historians writing contemporaneously or nearly so with the period. Though his distance from Babylon prevented him from participating in the distribution of power, Craterus hastened to Macedonia to assume the protection of Alexander's family. The succession, then, was understandably a grave issue; however, much of the crisis is mediated in our principle source, the historian Quintus Curtius Rufu… Macedon: Successors of Alexander the Great. An army on campaign changes its leadership at any level frequently for replacement of casualties and distribution of talent to the current operations. After a time the king was assassinated. Alexander tried to establish Greek customs and culture into the empire he took over from Persia. He asked the Macedonians to pray for an "heir to the kingship" (diadochon tes basileias). Plutarch reports that Alexander and his mother bitterly reproached him for his numerous affairs among the women of his court.[7]. Before he could launch his intended invasion of Persia, Phili… The game is for two to five players, ages 14+, plays in … After his death, war soon broke out again and the fragmentation of the empire began in earnest. Made Regent of Macedonia, and General in Europe, when Alexander departed for his conquest of Asia (334 BC) Cassander (c. 358 - 297 BC) - Son of Antipater; Lysimachus (c. 360 - 281 BC) - Macedonian General, and bodyguard to Alexander the Great during his conquest of Asia Ares Games announced Successors 4E, a strategy game by Phalanx Games, for release in 2021.. Each one grew out of the previous. They had armies largely Macedonian and Greek in personnel, and most of them founded cities with colonies of their soldiers. He married her apparently for love when he was too old for marriage, having divorced Olympias. Athens and other cities joined together, ultimately besieging Antipater in the fortress of Lamia. Antigonus was killed, but his son Demetrius took a large part of Macedonia and continued his father's dynasty. Antipater had been one of the few remaining individuals with enough prestige to hold the empire together. To settle the question whether his empire should disintegrate or survive as a unity, and, if so, under whose rule, they fought several full-scale wars. Although Eumenes defeated the rebels in Asia Minor, in a battle at which Craterus was killed, it was all for nought, as Perdiccas himself was murdered by his own generals Peithon, Seleucus, and Antigenes during an invasion of Egypt. Lendering, Jona. Craterus was an infantry and naval commander under Alexander during his conquest of the Achaemenid Empire. his father Philip was assassinated, and Alexander the Great became ruler of Macedonia. The joint rule of Philip III and Alexander IV was subject to the regency of a one of Alexander the Great's old comrades: Perdiccas. When Alexander left Macedon to conquer Persia in 334 BCE, Antipater was named Regent of Macedon and General of Greece in Alexander's absence. By 1898 Adolf Holm incorporated a footnote describing and evaluating Droysen's arguments. The Columbia Electronic Encyclopedia, 6th ed. Passing over his own son, Cassander, Antipater had declared Polyperchon his successor as Regent. Antipater was an adviser to King Philip II, Alexander's father, a role he continued under Alexander. New York, NY: Carroll & Graf Publishers, 2004. Although the regent Antipater was able to suppress a rebellion staged by Agis II of Sparta, he was unable to prevent Alexander’s mother, Olympias, from constantly complaining to his son about the regent’s supposed abuse of power. Almost immediately after Alexander’s death in Babylon, chaos erupted. After the death of Cassander and Lysimachus, following one another in fairly rapid succession, the Ptolemies and Seleucids controlled the vast majority of Alexander's former empire, with a much smaller segment controlled by the Antigonid dynasty until the 1st century. The prefix dia- changes the meaning slightly to add a social expectation to the received. However, as expected, these agreements were not maintained and soon all the great empire of Alexander the Great fell into internal struggles for power and control. These were their initial positions as Diadochi. Much of what we know about Alexander the Great is unreliable and steeped in myth; a lot of these mythologies were used by Alexander’s successors. Craterus and Antipater defeated the rebellion in 322 BCE. Birth. Alexander the Great's empire stretched across three continents and his achievements changed the nature of the ancient world. Ptolemy retained Egypt, Lysimachus retained Thrace, while the three murderers of Perdiccas—Seleucus, Peithon, and Antigenes—were given the provinces of Babylonia, Media, and Susiana respectively. [18], (2) Satrap at Partition of Babylon; possibly Nicanor of Stageira To Grote's assertion in the Preface to his work that the period "is of no interest in itself," but serves only to elucidate "the preceding centuries," Austin comments "Few nowadays would subscribe to this view. Alexander’s Heirs offers a narrative account of the approximately forty years following the death of Alexander the Great, during which his generals vied for control of his vast empire, and through their conflicts and politics ultimately created the Hellenistic Age.. Offers an account of the power struggles between Alexander’s rival generals in the forty year period following his death The Wars of the Diadochi were a series of conflicts, fought between 322 and 275 BCE, over the rule of Alexander's empire after his death. Alexander’s sudden death in 323 had left gaping the unsettled question of the succession. [13] In an 1843 work, "History of the Epigoni" (Geschichte der Epigonen) he details the kingdoms of the Epigoni, 280-239 BCE. They were typically from the nobility, many related to Alexander. He had acquired his expertise fighting for Thebes and Greek freedom under his patron, Epaminondas. Philip is said to have wept for joy when Alexander performed a feat of which no one else was capable, taming the wild horse, Bucephalus, at his first attempt in front of a skeptical audience including the king. At the moment of Alexander's death, all possibilities were suddenly suspended. There were no fixed ranks of Hetairoi except as the term meant a special unit of cavalry. “The Death of Alexander the Great.” n.d. http://www.livius.org/aj-al/alexander/alexander_t28.html (accessed Oct. 12… [15] He describes the Diadochi and Epigoni as "powerful individuals. The Somatophylakes were the seven bodyguards of Alexander. He created the League of Corinth, which included most of the city states of Greece, including all the leading ones except Sparta. They were met by an army commanded by King Philip Arrhidaeus and his wife Eurydice, which immediately defected, leaving the king and Eurydice to Olympias's not so tender mercies, and they were killed (317 BCE). The Battle of Ipsus, fought in Phrygia, Asia Minor (present-day Turkey) in 301 BC between … A certain basic meaning is included in all definitions, however. Paul I of Russia was the son and successor of Catherine the Great, who took the Romanov throne away from her feeble-minded husband, Tsar Peter III, and had him killed in 1762, an event which ever afterwards preyed on the mind of their son, then a boy of … Antigonus remained in charge of Phrygia, Lycia, and Pamphylia, to which was added Lycaonia. “Alexander’s successors: the Diadochi.” n.d. http://www.livius.org/di-dn/diadochi/diadochi.htm (accessed Oct. 12, 2009). The Diadochi (/daɪˈædəkaɪ/;[1] plural of Latin Diadochus, from Greek: Διάδοχοι, Diádokhoi "successors") were the rival generals, families, and friends of Alexander the Great who fought for control over his empire after his death in 323 BCE. Thus began the remarkable spread of the Hellenistic (Greek, rather than Macedonian) civilization. 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